How To Peel and Mince Fresh Ginger
Spoon, preferably one with a thin edge
Large sharp knife
Peeling ginger with a spoon. Using the edge of the spoon with the convex of the bowl facing towards you, scrape away the ginger's papery skin using firm, downward strokes. You can anchor the root on a cutting board or hold it in your other hand, either will work. Scrape away as much as needed from the larger root (the rest of the root will give you a nice 'handle' to steady the process) or the whole piece if that's what's needed. The spoon will make it easier to work your way over and around all the little nubs. With a spoon, pretty much just the skin will be removed.
Peeling ginger with a vegetable peeler. In the same way you would use the spoon, peel the skin from the root. You will need a little more caution here as you can potentially cut yourself with the peeler and you will also notice that you are taking off some of the flesh. The peeler should be able to handle the bumps and nubs but again, use caution as this is the classic place to slip and cut yourself.
Mincing ginger by hand. Cut the ginger into coins. Using a large, sharp knife, cut the peeled ginger crosswise into coins. The thickness of the coins will determine how fine your mince will be: thinner coins will yield a finer mince. Cut the coins into matchsticks and then tiny cubes. Stack a few coins up. Do not make too high of a pile as the coins can easily slip when cutting and cause you to loose control of your knife. Cut the matchstick crosswise into a mince. Repeat with remaining coins.
Chop again if needed. I sometimes take my knife and chop it while moving it through the whole pile to chop any bigger pieces that I may have missed the first time. This is sometimes called 'running your knife through.'
Mincing ginger on the microplane. The microplane is an excellent tool if you want superfine, even pureed, ginger. It will often create some juice, so be sure to use it over a plate or bowl. Simply rub your ginger on the microplane using a fair amount of pressure, being cautious as you get to the end of your piece as you can easily scrape your fingers on its razor sharp surface. You may have to scrape the ginger pulp off of the back of the microplane or give it a firm whack to dislodge the ginger. This method and its results are similar to what you would get if you used a traditional asian ginger grater.