How To Cook (and Shred) a Pork Shoulder for Pulled Pork

updated Sep 24, 2022
How To Cook (and Shred) a Pork Shoulder

A pork shoulder, slow-cooked and pulled into succulent little shreds, can become a thousand different meals.

Serves10 to 12

Makes10 cups

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(Image credit: Emma Christensen)

Pork shoulder is one of my secret weapons in the kitchen. A pork shoulder, slow-cooked and pulled into succulent little shreds, can become a thousand different meals. I can mix in some barbecue sauce and make pulled pork sandwiches, scatter the pork over pizza, or toss it into a sauce for pasta. And that’s just to start!

Today I want my secret weapon to become your secret weapon. I’m showing you how to cook a pork shoulder — from choosing the meat to transforming it into a fork-tender meal that can last all week.

Pulled Pork
(Image credit: The Kitchn)

What to Buy?

Look for pork shoulder or pork butt. Even though it’s called a “butt,” it’s actually part of the shoulder meat. (The actual rear end is called the ham!) Go for bone-in or boneless, whichever you prefer. Bone-in shoulders take a little longer to cook, but can make the meat more flavorful and succulent. Boneless cuts can be sliced into smaller chunks for easier handling and quicker cooking. I’ve done both many times and find bone-in and boneless fairly interchangeable.

(Image credit: Emma Christensen)

You can use this method to cook any size cut you want, but I usually go for four to six pounds boneless or four to seven pounds bone-in. This will give you roughly 10 cups of shredded meat, which is enough to feed a crowd or plenty for a week’s worth of meals. Cooking a pork shoulder takes an afternoon of your time, so I tend to roast as much as I can at once and freeze what I don’t think I’ll use right away for future meals.

Slow-Cooking the Pork

Cooking a pork shoulder into heavenly succulence is practically fool-proof, but it does require time. The shoulder is a hard-working muscle and the meat is pretty darn tough. At a low, steady temperature, however, the gelatin in that tough shoulder melts and bastes the meat as it cooks. You can’t rush it.

Put the meat in a Dutch oven or other heavy pot, pour in just enough liquid (broth, beer, or anything else) so the meat is partially submerged, then cover it and let the pork cook slowly in a low oven for a few hours. This is entirely hands-off time. The pork is done when it’s so tender that it literally flakes apart when you poke it with a fork and falls off the bone.

What to Do with Pork Shoulder

I said this was my secret weapon and I meant it. A few hours of labor upfront means some pretty darn incredible pork that will make almost any quick weeknight dish taste like it took hours to make. Depending on how you spice the pork, one single batch can be used in countless ways.

Besides making straight-up pulled pork sandwiches, I add it to pasta sauces, frittatas, casseroles, and pizzas. Don’t forget about making tacos or enchiladas, steamed pork buns, or stir-fried rice — almost every cuisine has its own uses for shredded pork! I also freeze the pork in one-cup batches so I can easily thaw it for easy dinners down the road.

I’ve listed a few other ideas below and some different spice blends at the end of the recipe. Do you regularly cook pork shoulder? What do you like to do with it?

(Image credit: Emma Christensen)

More Ideas for Pork Shoulder

Ways to Use Pork Shoulder

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You’ll need 4 to 6 pounds of boneless pork shoulder or butt (or 5 to 7 pounds bone-in). Before beginning, heat the oven to 325°F. Place an oven rack in the lower-middle of the oven. (Image credit: Emma Christensen)

How To Cook (and Shred) a Pork Shoulder

A pork shoulder, slow-cooked and pulled into succulent little shreds, can become a thousand different meals.

Makes10 cups

Serves10 to 12

Nutritional Info


  • 4 to 6 pounds

    boneless pork shoulder or butt (or 5 to 7 pounds bone-in)

  • 1 tablespoon

    kosher salt

  • 1 1/2 tablespoons

    freshly ground black pepper

  • 1 to 3 tablespoons

    mixed spices or dry herbs (see Recipe Notes)

  • 1

    medium yellow onion, chopped (optional)

  • 1

    medium carrot, chopped (optional)

  • 3 stalks

    celery, chopped (optional)

  • 4 cloves

    garlic, smashed (optional)

  • 1 1/2 cups

    liquid, such as low-sodium chicken or vegetable broth, tomato juice, light or amber beer, white or red wine, orange juice, or a mix of several liquids

  • 2 to 4 tablespoons

    liquid smoke (optional)

  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup

    barbecue sauce (optional)



  1. Heat the oven to 325°F. Arrange a rack in the lower third of the oven and heat to 325°F.

  2. Trim the pork. Trim off any large pieces of fat from the outside of the pork shoulder, but leave small pieces and the interior fat. If using boneless pork, cut the pork into several large fist-sized pieces. If using bone-in, leave the pork as is, on the bone.

  3. Season the pork. Sprinkle the pork with the salt, pepper, and spices if using. Rub the seasoning into the pork with your fingers so the meat is evenly coated on all sides.

  4. Sear the pork (optional). If you have time, searing will deepen the final flavor of your pork and give it some textural contrast. Heat a tablepsoon or two of oil in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add the pork and sear on all sides, working in batches as needed so as not to crowd the pan. For more detailed step-by-step instructions, see How To Sear Meat. If not searing, just place the pork in the Dutch oven.

  5. Add the vegetables (if using). Onions, garlic, and other vegetables also deepen the final flavor of the pork, but are optional. If using, nestle them around the pork in the Dutch oven.

  6. Add the liquid. Pour the liquid and liquid smoke (if using) over the pork. The pork should be only partially submerged, with some of the pork remaining above the surface of the liquid.

  7. Bring to a simmer. Place the Dutch oven with the pork over medium-high heat and bring the liquid to a simmer.

  8. Cover and transfer to the oven. Cover the Dutch oven and transfer the whole pot to the oven.

  9. Cook for 2 to 4 hours, until fork tender. Let the pork cook undisturbed for 2 hours, then begin checking it every half hour. Total cooking time will be 2 to 4 hours, depending on the amount of pork and whether it's bone-in (which takes longer to cook). The pork is done when it is fork-tender (when the meat can be easily pierced with a fork without resistance and easily falls apart with a little pressure). If you're cooking pork on the bone, the meat should be falling off the bone. If in doubt, cook the meat another half hour; it's almost impossible to overcook meat with this method.

  10. Transfer the pork to a large bowl. Lift the pieces of pork out of the liquid and transfer to a large bowl. When cool enough to handle, use two forks or your fingers to shred the meat into pieces. Remove any large pieces of fat or bones.

  11. Strain the cooking liquid. Strain the cooking liquid into a measuring cup. The vegetables can be chopped and mixed in with the pork, if desired. Skim the fat off the top of the cooking liquid.

  12. Moisten the pork with cooking liquid or barbecue sauce (optional). For more moist and flavorful pulled pork, you can mix some of the cooking liquid back into the pork. Start with a little, mix, then add more until the pork is as wet or dry as you like. Alternatively, for barbecue pulled pork, you can mix in barbecue sauce.

Recipe Notes

Slow-cooker variation: In a 5-quart or larger slow cooker, combine the meat, any vegetables, and liquid. Cover and cook on HIGH for 5 to 6 hours or LOW for 8 to 10 hours.

Storage: Pulled pork will keep for 1 week in the refrigerator or for up to 3 months in the freezer.

Spice combinations:
→ Plain pork (most versatile, season after cooking for use in any dish): bay leaf (used whole) with no other spices
→ Barbecue-spiced pork (good for pulled pork sandwiches, tacos, and pizza): cumin, paprika, brown sugar, dry mustard
→ Herbed pork (good for pasta sauces, ravioli, and casseroles): fresh or dried oregano, thyme, rosemary, tarragon, bay leaf (used whole)
Mexican-spiced pork (good for enchiladas, burritos, tacos and tamales): cumin, chile powder, dried oregano, dried chipotle or ancho chiles (used whole), garlic powder
→ Asian-spiced pork (good for tacos, steamed dumplings, and stir-fried rice): star anise, cloves, fennel, coriander, cinnamon (or Chinese 5-spice blend)

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