International Olive Council (IOC) standards, an extra virgin olive oil must be made from fresh olives processed quickly after harvest and the oil must be extracted mechanically, not using solvents, at a temperature not exceeding 86°F. It must not be mixed with other oils or pomace (milling leftovers) and must pass laboratory and IOC taste tests. This designation is not regulated in the United States, however, so to be sure you are getting true extra virgin olive oil, stick with brands from IOC member countries or those certified by the California Olive Oil Council (COOC). • Virgin Olive Oil This is intermediate quality oil, generally found in Europe but not the United States. It has some defects that prevent it from being designated extra virgin. Defects may include zero fruity flavor, fusty, winey-vinegary, musty, muddy sediment, or rancid. • Olive Oil or Pure Olive Oil This is defective olive oil that has been refined to remove the defects. Virtually odorless and tasteless, the refined oil is mixed with some extra virgin olive oil for flavor. It is less expensive than extra virgin and a suitable choice for cooking dishes where you don't need or want a strong olive oil flavor. • Light Olive Oil This is basically the same as pure olive oil, with a light flavor. It is not lighter in calories. • Olive Pomace Oil This is made from the residue left over from previous olive pressings. It is refined with solvents and mixed with some extra virgin oil. • First Cold Press This term is a holdover from the days when olives were pressed between mats to extract the oil. The first pressing would yield a higher quality oil, while the second pressing would yield lower grade oil to be refined or used in oil lamps. Nowadays, unless the oil was made using the mat process (which is rare), the term is just marketing. • Harvest Date Olive oil is best when fresh and it does not get better with age. Look for recently made oil and try to use it within a year. • Use By Date This date is usually two years after the oil was made. • Bottled or Produced in Italy This claim is not necessarily enforced, so the oil may or may not have been made in Italy or from Italian olives. Check the back label for fine print on the source of the oil (often Spain, Greece, or Tunisia). • California Olive Oil Only oils made from 100% California olives can make this claim. • Seals and Medals European olive oils may have a Designated Origin seal that indicates they were produced in a particular region. In the United States, the California Olive Oil Council (COOC) awards a seal to oils that meet IOC standards. Other seals and medals may bear the name of regional fairs or competitions. These are usually a good indicator of quality oil, particularly if the year of the award matches that specific oil. (Bear in mind that a producer's 2008 oil may not have all the same qualities as the oil that received an award in 2004.) Did we miss anything? Share your knowledge in the comments or let us know if you have questions about something not on the list. Next week, we'll post some of the things we learned about olive oil tasting and flavor characteristics.
Related: Good Question: Mild Olive Oil Supermarket Saver: How Much to Pay for Olive Oil? The Great Olive Oil Scam. Don't Be Duped. What's the Deal with Oils? Which is Better? Vegetable Oil vs. Olive Oil (Images: Gregory Han)